From Sat Apr 8 08:57:37 1995
Date: Fri, 7 Apr 1995 10:35:41 -0400
Subject: Re: Democracy AND Republic


The goal of this document is to provide a method to insure a sustainable environment and protect and enhance justice and human existence worldwide. It is not a substitute, nor is it inconsistent with the U.S. Constitution. It is just that people are hungry, but there is enough food; people are looking for work, but there is a work to do. This needs to be addressed. We live in a very strange world. The problem is organization. 

The basic organization of world government presented here is a central Federation that operates in conjunction with five Regions (continents). The Federation and Regions each have a legislative body: a Senate for the Federation which consists of 20 members from each Region, and a House of Representatives for each Region which consists of members from Nation-States in that Region, the number depending on the population. Each legislative body of the Federation and Regions also has a Business Committee which is equal in size to five percent of the respective House of Congress. The Federation and each Region have an Executive branch (President) and a Judicial branch, which consists of a Supreme Court, lesser courts and mediators.

The new proposed organization is an attempt to harness the power of working together so that the cost of controlling each other and protecting each other is diverted to improving each other, and thus decreasing the need for control and protection. 

The first principle of this constitution is that all policies must be consistent with a sustainable environment. Individuals
or heads of companies are responsible for acts against the environment which are considered crimes against humanity. The artificial low cost of products resulting from the failure to consider environmental impact, the use of depressed labor standards, and the use of artificially low cost energy sources are eliminated. Product costs will go up to reflect the additional social costs that have been disregarded for so long. 

We are presently trying to solve all our economic, social and political problems by increasing production. The more one increases production, the more one needs to increase production.  This creates an unstable situation. Hence, in this Constitution, a new and simple model for economic organization has been developed that should provide for more equitable distribution of funds and opportunity in the world. This, in itself, will go a long way to solve deep world problems like over population, food supply, etc. The economy is based on the gold standard, and annual change is simply based on population change, the needs of the citizens, and the desired improvement in the standard of living that is attainable within a sustainable environment. This economic structure provides enough money to do, but not necessarily to have. Full employment and supplementary benefits are provided for. However, people receiving these benefits must be on a program that will lead to independence from them. The percentage of wealth held by the top five percent of the population is limited. Defense spending is limited and cannot exceed the medical or education budget. The budgeting is also forced to provide funds for long term programs. Free trade, free flow of capital, and competitive access to raw material are established. Corporations receiving funds through public offerings such as stocks, bonds, etc. are required to return at least ten percent back to the government. This return represents a dilution for the corporation but increases the importance of cooperation between business and government as well as decreases the government's need for outside money. More minor constitutional additions are that campaign funds are limited and only provided by the government, the expectation that retirement age will change with longevity to decrease the need for social service funding, and a provision that some money from the Federation will be put aside in an interest bearing account for each person born to provide increased opportunity in their future.

Education is a key to implementing any worldwide policy and with the new advanced communication technology, electronic access to education and information will be provided to everyone. Educating for understanding, tolerance, and cooperation is stressed. 

Ethics is provided a prominent and formal position in the world government. An ethics review board will be established to provide ethics guidelines, and aid implementation and monitoring of ethics programs. Any organization or program receiving public funding is required to have a formal ethics policy. Government secrecy can only be applied to areas that are vital.

Human Rights are enumerated and guaranteed. These are similar to those of the International Declaration of Human Rights. Additions include securing the rights to the substantive base for indigenous people and providing for educating the citizens.  There are provisions for a religious forum for discussion of issues and to provide recommendation. 

The government will support technology including establishing worldwide communications standards. Long and short term goals must be established, with an understanding of the social and environmental impact.

Weapons are limited to single action devices. All mass destruction weapons need to be eliminated. Defense personnel can be deployed to support social causes like the distribution of food.

Nation-States' boundaries will be guaranteed. To change boundaries peacefully requires a two-thirds vote by the people in the area immediately affected and a majority vote of the Region.  Nation-States can experiment with different forms of government.  All debt between members is forgiven.

Each member of the House of Representatives is elected for four years. Each member of the Senate is elected for six years and each member of the Business Committee, which is elected by the one thousand largest transnational enterprises in each region, is elected for two years. Meetings are held electronically. An annual confidence/no confidence vote by the people is established. A "no confidence" vote requires a general election within three months for all offices except those just filled.

To establish a law requires a majority vote by all citizens directly or by proxy through their representatives in their
respective House of Congress (Senate for the Federation and House of Representatives for the Regions); but before a vote can take place, any new bill must be presented to the Business Committee for review. Within two weeks they must return the bill with comments. Four things can then happen. First, the President can veto the bill in which case it goes back to the House that originated the bill, and in order to become law, a two-thirds affirmative vote is required. Second, the Business Committee can veto the bill, in which case an affirmative vote by a majority of the same House is required but now each member of the Business Committee has a vote as well (essentially provides for a five percent increase in the number of votes in the respective House). This provides for closer cooperation between government and corporations. Transnational corporation's representatives are provided a formal advisory role and a significant role in establishing policies. Third, if the House of Representatives of any Region rejects a Federation Senate bill or the Federation Senate rejects a bill by the House of Representatives of any Region, the bill is returned to the House of Congress that originated the bill and a two-thirds affirmative vote is required for passage of the bill. A vote by the non-originating House is strictly optional. It is expected that this would only rarely occur. Fourth, no vetoes are received and the bill becomes law.

The President/Vice President is elected for four years through a general election, using secret ballots. The powers of the President are similar to those of the U.S. President.

The Supreme Court members are appointed by the President and require an affirmative vote by a majority of the respective House of Congress and can serve for life. There is an emphasis placed on the social responsibility of their decisions and the need to have these decisions made in the context of both law and society.  There is a mechanism to overturn Supreme Court decisions. The respective House of Congress through a two-thirds vote can call for a general citizen vote on Supreme Court decisions. Lesser courts and mediators are also established.

Finally, in all this, there is an attempt to emphasize the dignity of humankind and to emphasize that this document only sets minimums, humanity must strive for higher ends to achieve a society when no minimum standards are necessary.